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markk

markk

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De Gaulle
Julian Jackson
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Martin Brecht
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The Framers' Coup: The Making of the United States Constitution - Michael J. Klarman

Lest anyone think that Americans have changed:

"Neither side was adverse, if all else failed, to hint at a resort to violence should it lose the contest over ratification. For example, Pennsylvania Antifederalists worried that if the Constitution were put into operation despite the considerable opposition still existing in the state after the Pennsylvania ratifying convention had approved it, '[a] civil war with all its dreadful train of evils will probably be the consequence.' New York City Federalists likewise predicted a civil war if the state's ratifying convention failed to unconditionally approve the Constitution, and they stated their resolve 'to defend the Constitution by force.

 

Indeed, occasionally, each side went beyond intimating at violence to actually employing it. On the night of elections to choose ratifying convention delegates in Pennsylvania, a mob in Philadelphia attacked the private homes of local Antifederalists, as well as the boarding house where assemblymen and councilors from the state;s western counties were lodged. According to the account provided by a local physician, the officeholders were 'abused, their wives frightened, etc.' ' Does this not give a foretaste, ' he wondered, 'of this blessed Constitution?' Returning the favor, Antifederalists in Carislile, Pennsylvania rioted in the days after Christmas 1787, disrupting their opponents' celebration of the state's ratification of the Constitution and burning in protest both a copy of the Constitution and effigies of leading Federalists James Wilson and Chief Justice Thomas McKean."